Grand Duke of Moscow Vasily third to expand the boundaries of their ancestral lands have spent a lot of time and effort.In 1503, most of the current Zaraiskiy district ceased to be the territory of the Ryazan principality, which by that time lost its independence.These lands became part of Muscovy.However, Ryazan no longer an obstacle for the Crimean Tatars on their way to Moscow.Therefore, before Prince Vasili acute problem of protection of the southern borders of the state.It was then that the decision was made on the construction of several defensive settlements, including in Zaraysk.
Kremlin was built in 1528-1531 Zaraisky Kremlin's.Earlier this place already had wooden fortifications.However, it was agreed that it is not enough reliable fortification.Therefore, from Italy, I was invited engineer Aleviz Fryazin.It inside the old wooden walls and built new stone.
According to archaeologists to excavate around the Kremlin, it was originally surrounded by a dry moat wide and five meters
Throughout its existence Zaraisky Kremlin has repeatedly restored and being completed, so just kept in excellent condition.Repeatedly this medieval building repaired in the 17th and 19th centuries.
Kremlin after the revolution
After the revolution (in 1918) was transferred to the Kremlin museum Zaranska.However, despite this, it is on the south side of the Church of the Saviour was in the 30s demolished.Do not have survived and the church of St. George, once adorned the opposite bank of the river from the fortress Sturgeon and Church of the Epiphany, is also nearby.In the early and mid-20th century, the Kremlin repeatedly carried out cosmetic repairs.Capital is the restoration it underwent in 1887-1993 gg.
Museum "Zaraisky Kremlin»
Today this ancient medieval Kremlin enjoys immense popularity among tourists.He represents an elongated east-west rectangle.One of its distinguishing features are a very small size.It is the smallest of all surviving stone kremlin.Its dimensions - only 130 x 190 m. Around the whole Kremlin can be no more than 20 minutes.
Corner towers of the Kremlin
fortress walls are decorated with seven towers - four in the corners and three on the entrance gate (southern, northern and western).On the eastern side of the tower is missing.The fact that this wall was initially hollow.The gates were pierced in it later, once eliminated the need for reflection Tatar invasions.
angular towers are dodecahedron diameter of about ten meters and a height of about 12-14 m. The distinctive feature of them is that in favor of the Kremlin walls are quite far away.Once at the defenders of the fortress was a great opportunity, being here, almost keep all-round defense.North-east tower called Powder because it once was stored gunpowder.South East - "The tavern" - got its name because it was located next to the saloon.This building was demolished not long ago - in the 90s.Corner southwest tower called "The hiding place" as it is located next to an underground passage through which the Kremlin had once brought water.Unfortunately, due to the different kind of restoration work at the moment, this "secret" is lost.North-West Tower (the highest) is called "Karaulnaya."With her very well seen the vicinity of the monastery, and therefore served as she once an inspection point.
Access towers are quadrangular shape and three-tier defense.Gates, once served as a barrier to the enemy, were equipped falling bars.In addition, the fortifications were supplemented and drawbridges.To the north in Zaraysk Kremlin can be reached through the Nikolsky Gate.They are named so due to the fact that close to them is the same name the chapel, which is preserved to this day.West Tower Egoryevskaya called because it is close to them once housed the church of St. George.Not far from the southern Spasskaya tower once stood the church of the same name.East Gate called Troitsk.
in the Kremlin are two of the Cathedral: St. John the Baptist and St. Nicholas.The latter was built in 1681 Cathedral of St. John the Baptist - later construction.The exact date of its construction is unknown.In addition to these two churches on the territory of a wooden belfry Zaraisky Kremlin (map with its location in the city and the scheme presented below).
Kremlin walls have an average height of eight meters and a thickness of 3.5.The width of the Battle Phase in them - 2 m. Lined they are made of brick and is surrounded by limestone.It is known that once the Kremlin was whitewashed.However, after one of the original restorations it was decided not to change the appearance of the walls, as the brick with limestone combined very well.Thus it was preserved the spirit of a medieval building.Zaraysk Kremlin, whose photos you can see in this article - a really interesting ancient construction, which should definitely visit.
area around the Kremlin
Shortly after construction began to appear around the Kremlin yards artisans, merchants, priests and landlords.In addition, a wooden stockade was built, surrounded by the townsmen.It consisted of sections covered with earth, mixed with stones, and represented no less serious fortification than the Zaraysk Kremlin.To get to the townsmen could travel in five towers.In addition, the prison complement seven deaf.This belted wooden fencing was a deep ditch.In addition, the townsmen defended the stockade.Around him many clung suburb.
beautifully preserved old buildings is not the only interesting thing, which boasts Zaraisky Kremlin.Things did not numerous, but they are available.First of all - this tomb monument Zaraisk Prince John, and Theodore Eupraxia.Also available on site baptismal church Seraphim of Sarov.
For centuries, the main shrine of the Kremlin was a miraculous icon of St. Nicholas of Zaraysk.Today it is kept in the Museum of Andrei Rublev in Moscow.However, wanting to know exactly how it looked, could look at the list with her, which is in the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist in the Kremlin.
Today Zaraisky Kremlin is one of the most popular tourist places in Russia.Already visited his history buffs, note not only the diversity of the tour program, but also the purity of the territory and grooming facilities.Museum staff willing to provide visitors with all the needed information about the history of the Kremlin, its attractions and architectural features.Many tourists are very impressed by the silence and tranquility that prevails in the area.Those who decided to visit this wonderful place, it is advised to visit not only the fortress, but also to bypass it around the outside to see the tower and the walls better.Some tourists even find in the Kremlin ancient coins.
Zaraisky Kremlin.How to get there?
Located in Zaraysk Kremlin street Revolution, 2. To get to the city from Moscow, you can across the lake or Luhovtsy.In the first case the path is somewhat longer.Reaching Kolomna should turn to Ozerskoye highway.After the Oka will turn right in the direction of Zaraysk.In order to get to Lukhovitsy, you need to move on the highway M5 (Novoryazanskoye).Passing Luhovtsy should turn to Zaraysk.
Getting to the city is possible and on the bus.He departs from the metro station "Vykhino" daily every 40-60 minutes from 7:30 to 20:35.Bus Number - 330.