In the heart of the city, on the shaft of Chernigov, majestic snow-white church.He is crowned with five domes and towers of the conical shape.This unique monument of the beginning of the eleventh century - the Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernigov.
a long time, the Orthodox church is the oldest among similar facilities since princely times.Of course, it was a question of those who survived.However, recent studies have shown that the oldest is St. Sophia Cathedral, whose staff back in 2010 stated that the latter was founded in 1011.As proof they brought numerous inscriptions on its walls.Although this version is not yet fully established, but some researchers believe that the year that had laid the Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernigov - 1036 th.
In 1024 the famous Chernigov Prince Mstislav of Chernigov won in a long internecine wars and began to greatly expand its ownership.His lands stretched from Sivershchyna to the North Caucasus.At this time in the territory of
known that in the same year its founder died.At the time of his death the wall of the temple, as evidenced by the chroniclers, they have been raised to a height of four meters.
tuning already in the reign of Svyatoslav Yaroslavich, amazingly beautiful Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernihiv was the main shrine of the land.It is here that kept many rare miracle-working icons, relics of saints.
After the death of Prince Brave, its founder, from the construction of the cathedral took off all the masters.They were deployed to the construction of the church of St.Sophia Novgorod.Therefore completed the Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernihiv was only in the middle of the eleventh century.
For nearly nine centuries it was the cathedral of the local diocese.He was considered the center of the state and public life.Under its vaults buried many princes and lords spiritual.Here the relics of Prince Mstislav the Brave and Svyatoslav Yaroslavovych and his sons Oleg and Gleb.In 1246 there were buried the holy martyrs Mikhail and Fyodor.However, in 1572-m, by decree of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, the relics were taken to Moscow.
Some researchers believe that here was buried Prince Igor - the hero of "Lay."He ruled Chernigov from 1198 till 1201-th years.Here are buried hierarchs local diocese Lazar Baranovych and Ambrose Dubkevich.In the era of ancient Russia in the Cathedral is one of the most, perhaps, revered icons in Russia - Smolensk Icon of the Mother of God, or the Hodegetria.However, after a while Vladimir Monomakh shrine moved to Smolensk.
Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernigov, a plan which demonstrates a sufficiently large by the standards of the old Russian - 18,25h27 meters - three-nave structure with three apses and six poles, repeatedly rebuilt.In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, for example, he had the two towers are built.And only after that the Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernihiv got its present form.
facade on the perimeter complex is extremely elegant masonry made of bricks hidden nearby.It is decorated with original pilasters, and in the first tier - virtually flat, while in the second - profiled.
spatial planning, which is the Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernihiv (the photo brings it home every man, coming to the city), is truly unique.This original design features not found in ancient temples.
The excavations revealed that the eastern corner to the main building were added to a small chapel, which to this day have not been preserved.And today, the Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernihiv, photo where is the proof of that, it is without them.
not preserved round tower and adjacent to the north side of the porch.From her staircase led to the gallery.But the south was originally was attached trehapsidny little church, which was the baptismal.In addition, when the cathedral in 1239 during the invasion of the Tatars was virtually destroyed, fallen arches and domes.
Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernigov, whose style is a combination of the circuit cross-domed Byzantine church with some elements of Romanesque basilica, extraordinarily beautiful.In the process of building the master used the technology of mixed masonry.At the same time with the plinth is the characteristic for ancient architecture with a thin burnt brick - was used natural stone.Architects studied the principles and techniques of construction, admiringly noted that a constructive solution of the Cathedral of amazingly clear, almost perfect.
Effect of time
For almost a thousand years of history of this ancient cultural monument has undergone numerous destruction and reconstruction.In the years when Chernigov in 1239 was taken by the army of Khan Meng, the cathedral has undergone a complete looting.According to legend, it was here closed, defense, the last defenders of the fallen city.The defense led the Chernigov Prince Mstislav.His wife, in order not to fall into the hands of the enemy, jumped from the windows of the red towers of the cathedral.
episcopal chair was moved from Chernigov in Bryansk.It was only in 1675 - when Archbishop Lazarus Baranovichi - began to be carried out reconstruction work.Then were overbuilt apse.
Thoroughly rebuilding the temple was carried out in the years 1791-1798, after the fire, when the building was badly damaged.It was at this time have been lost, many old Russian frescoes.
Chroniclers wrote that in 1783-m in Chernihiv was passing Potemkin, who is very much interested in this cathedral.As a result of his petition has been allocated for the repair of sufficient funds.However, unfortunately, the restructuring of the church more harm.It caused such harm that could not even put all the previous destruction.
Then the sides of the cathedral were added two pointed towers.This was to give the cathedral a certain similarity with the church.In addition, they serve as a sundial.
Interior The interior of the cathedral felt solemn and rigorous combination of verticals to horizontals.Particularly worth noting are ancient relics such as murals and reliefs on the parapets of the choir, as well as initially laid down the column.Unfortunately, not all of the pre-Mongol preserved decoration of the temple, and what came to us, saved in fragments and looks far better.The bulk of the interior painting destroyed by fire in the mid-eighteenth century.
famous fresco "Equal to the Apostles Thecla" filmed back in the 30s of the Bolsheviks, and then it was destroyed during the Second World War.The rest of the small but very ancient painting spots stand out from the bad discernible pattern of frescoes of the nineteenth century.It turns out that the interior of the cathedral was re-painted in 1820-m, and half a century later updated.It is then killed and ancient drawings.
The studies were found inside the cathedral remaining pieces of the floor, made at different times.The original coating consisted of slabs of slate, which has been embedded image filled with mosaics.One of its main elements are concentric circles.Originally, the altar inside the floor was paved with ceramic glazed tiles.However, in the twelfth century it was replaced by smooth slate blocks.Of particular value in the cultural and historical aspects have slate reliefs on the parapets of the choir.
The interior of the elongated room perfectly combines with bunk inner arcades that soar into the dome space.Throughout their length they were originally equipped wooden decks for the northern and southern choir.They reinforce the horizontal division of interior decoration.These arcades are more characteristic of Byzantine architecture of the era.However, they are rare in the days of Kievan Rus.And this is one of the characteristic features, which is famous Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernigov, which the magnificence of his attire did not concede known throned churches.
It is believed that the builders of the temple was repeated to some extent the scheme of the Church of the Tithes - the first stone church Old Russian state.In addition, it was suggested that the artisans who created the cathedral in Chernigov and Kiev Sophia, were members of a Byzantine farm.
has long existed an old custom of the temple hung flags defenders.Since the beginning of the last century are exhibited and Cossack flags and banners eighteen Chernigov militia during the war with Napoleon, and eleven of the Crimean War.
In the sacristy still preserved many liturgical objects.Some of them donated by the citizens of the Church and of great value.Among them, the salary of the Gospel - a unique piece of work, which has raised the image.
known that the altar was a two-story silver-gilt sarcophagus weighing sixteen kilograms.During his stay in Chernigov in 1787 Empress Catherine II gave the church an ancient catholic cross and chair, as well as many old Reese.
major shrines that are kept here until 1917, were relics of Metropolitan Constantine and Prince Igor Olgovich.They were buried under the walls of the temple.In addition, there were also kept, and the relics of St. Theodosius Uglich - Archbishop of Chernigov, which lay open in a silver reliquary, weighing about two kilograms.
Here store and one of the most revered icons in Chernihiv region - the Mother of God Ripkinskoy.But the most famous is considered Protectress.In the days of Kievan Rus this shrine in the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernigov brought the daughter of the Emperor Constantine, who was married to Prince Vsevolod.Born into this marriage with Vladimir Monomakh in 1097 was the governor of Smolensk, where he rebuilt the temple.After finishing it, he moved the icon from Chernigov.And since then she began to call Smolensk.It is said that thanks to her Batu Khan in 1239 was unable to take the city.
Throughout its existence, the Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernigov, schedule of services which know today all the parishioners, was a place that is revered not only simple ordinary Christians, but also aristocrats, members of the royal family, which ruled the Russian Empirewhen it was still part of the composition of Ukraine.The temple belongs to the cultural and historical monuments protected.The study of its history and architectural features continued until recently.Currently, the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral is valid and protected by the state, is part of the historical park called "Ancient Chernihiv".