C time immemorial town of Kronstadt, located on Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland, served as guard abroad northwest Russia in the Baltic Sea.However, he is known not only as a military garrison, but also as a repository of values and many historical sights of St. Petersburg related to the maritime glory.
One of the most significant and majestic buildings is St. Nicholas Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt.It is located in the city center and is not only a monument to the heroism and courage of Russian sailors, but also performs quite peaceful and function: in routine and holidays held here worship, baptism and wedding.
Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt: Address
Russia, St. Petersburg, Kronstadt, Anchor Square, d. 1.
Kronstadt Naval Cathedral, opening hours: daily from 9.30 to 18.00.
also optional and can be accessed on the service, which is held twice a day at 10.00 and 18.00.
How to get there?
Unfortunately, water routes this year have been canceled due to low profitability, so get to the
- bus number 405 in Kronstadt from the subway "Black River" to a stop at the Anchor Square;
- bus number 407 in Kronstadt from the subway "Prospect of the Enlightenment" to stop at the Anchor Square;
- Bus number 101 to Kronstadt from the subway "Old Village" to a stop at the House of life, then - on foot along the street to the Soviet Anchor Square.
His appearance Naval Cathedral of St. Nicholas recalls Sophia church in Istanbul.Its structure is almost identical to the Turkish religious museum, however, has a much smaller length Nicholas Cathedral reserves 83 m, width - 64 m, height of the same (including the Cross) - a little more than 70 m.
At the same time Nicholas Church, in its mainparts, can accommodate about 3 thousand people.
Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt by its size ranks second in Russia after Moscow Cathedral of Christ the Savior.
BACKGROUND start of construction of the cathedral began to appear in the late XIX century., When the island of Kotlin has acquired the status of a lived by this time were built the port, shipyards, docks, military base.But serious temple, which would symbolize the faith and piety of the Russian army, had still not been.
course, the Orthodox Church had.But she, compared with standing near Lutheran chapels, was so unprepossessing appearance that the main proponent of the construction of a new church and donators Archpriest John of Kronstadt is constantly blame the boss.According to him, from this and may have been some setbacks in the Russian naval career.In addition, the majestic church would protect and defend Russia from encroachment strangers, as the temple is equivalent to the same ship, operated by the Lord.
Design: 1896 - 1902.
In 1896, through the efforts of one of the initiators, the vice-admiral and commander of Kronstadt port in NI Kazakov, work began on designing the future of the St. Nicholas Cathedral.Together with its direct appointment, the temple was also to perpetuate the memory of outstanding naval ranks and officers killed in the line of duty.
in 1897 was declared an international competition for the design of structures and appointed a committee to collect donations for the construction.Money is handed over and the members of the royal family and ordinary citizens, and officials belonging to the Navy Department.By the way, the last in 1898, is obliged to pay 0.25% of the total salary until 1914.
Total was given two competitions at the Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt.Schedule them dated 1897 and 1898, over the years, but none of the measures chosen and the winner was.
In July 1899 Nicholas II was already approved the project has not previously participated in competitions AI Tomishko, but the Construction Committee opposed this, and eventually develop instructed VA Kosyakova.A few years earlier, this architect has already built two similar topics temple.
In 1901, VA Kosjakov introduced special military meeting two sketches, one of which was finally approved, and Nicholas II, and the Committee.Future Naval Cathedral (Kronstadt) on this project was very similar to the line of Constantinople St. Sophia.
place for the construction of the Naval Cathedral was chosen in 1898.They became the anchor area because of its following features:
- this segment was the center of the city;
- the place has a certain elevation, and was protected from flooding;
- according to the plan, St. Nicholas Cathedral, located here, could be seen from all points in the fairway;
- a vast area in front of the temple would serve as a parade ground for parades maritime forces;
- the size of the area just enough for the huge cathedral.
In 1901, after the guidance has been allocated funds for the construction of the temple in Anchor Square was held a prayer service.Earth consecrated himself John of Kronstadt.The event was attended by around 14,000 naval officials and cadets.After the celebration, work began on clearing the site, which lasted several months.
1902 was marked by the beginning of everything and the foundation pit under the Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt.
In 1903 laid the first wall.It happened May 8 in the presence of Emperor Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra Fyodorovna, mother Maria Fedorovna, and Prince Michael, Alexis and Vladimir.
Construction and Decoration: 1903-1913 gg.
Prior to 1905 did not stop construction work of the Naval Cathedral.In Kronstadt, the process was controlled by the direction of the Committee, however, even the higher ranks could not affect the suspension of the process, suddenly emerged in 1905-1906 due to internal strife.This is mainly conditioned by failure to supply essential building materials: metal structures, bricks and ornaments.
In 1907, construction of the cathedral was reopened started interior decoration.The decor has taken longer than the construction itself.
In 1908 finished to install the heating system.
in 1913 was carried out the final stage of finishing: on the walls of St. Nicholas Cathedral placed plaques with the names of the dead sailors, made of marble.The list includes all employees since 1696.
June 10, 1913 Naval Cathedral was consecrated in the presence of the emperor and his family.Not only Kronstadt, but also in the St. Petersburg grand celebrations were held in honor of this event.
After all the work was completed, recalculated the cost of construction.As a result, it was found out that the only Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt was spent around 1.876 million rubles.
Nicholas Cathedral during the revolution
Rated its purpose the temple had to do long - only 4 years.In 1914, the First World War, in 1918, the structure redeveloped under civilian needs, and the next year and passed all the parishioners in the contractual use.
the summer of 1929 was the last service in the Kronstadt Naval Cathedral.After that, all remaining after the looting of the property of the temple described and transferred to the State Fund, the State Bank, the Navy and Russian museums.
irretrievable loss lists become seafarers gold immortalized on marble tablets.One part of them has been broken, the other - used for assembly work.
In 1930, the Bolsheviks sent to be melted almost all the bells and metal devices that could only be found in the temple.For the alarm notification was left only one bell, weighing about 5,000 kg.There is a version that the workers simply could not remove.A few months later it was dropped from the top and crosses.Now, over the tops of the domes of the Cathedral of fluttering red flags.
In 1932, the interior of the church was converted into a cinema in 1939, rebuilt again, but under the house officers.Engineering Service recently made a significant contribution to the preservation of the technical characteristics of the building.Regular maintenance has helped save the temple and communications from dilapidation and complete devastation.
Great Patriotic War and the postwar period
With the arrival of Nazi troops on the dome of the Naval cathedral equipped observation platform.It functioned until the lifting of the blockade.Despite the best efforts of citizens, during the war, the temple got a few shells, holes from which subsequently eliminated, and the inside of the building made the repairs.
At the end of hostilities, a new idea: to build in the Sea Cathedral concert hall.As a result, capital construction works was equipped with false ceiling, balcony, stage and wall partitions.Alteration of premises made up until 1954, and its result was the violation of the integrity of the walls of the temple - it went on numerous cracks.In February 1955 the hall was inaugurated.There were conducted evenings, concerts, various entertainment events.After the reduction of the garrison in the 60s.Hall again became one of the branches of the House of Officers.
Naval Cathedral: the 70-ies.to this day
in 1970 it changed the consciousness of the population, and the Naval Cathedral of St. Nicholas, it was decided to carry out major repairs and restoration.The state took the temple under his wing, designating it as a cultural monument.
1976 became a milestone in the history of the Orthodox buildings.Restoration Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt returned his original appearance.
In 1978, in a building of the Kronstadt sailors' club was a fire.In this case the premises of the Naval Cathedral once again came to the rescue - the club is temporarily housed in the temple.
May 8, 1980, the day dedicated to the anniversary of the victory over German troops in St. Nicholas Cathedral opened a museum, named after the Kronstadt fortress.Its area was slightly less than 1,000 m2, and in the collections was approximately 3,000 items, which have reached us from the war.
architecture and decoration Naval Cathedral
The exterior of the building elements prevail in the Romanesque style.The facade is lined with light brick, columns, portals and arches in relief, with the addition of multiple decorative items and ornaments.Despite the massive and impressive size of the structure, due to the numerous decorations, it does not create a feeling of awkwardness.
portal above the main entrance portal is decorated with mosaics of angels and a quote from Psalm 112 "from the east to the west hvalno name of the Lord!" On either side are two belfry with gilt arches and icons on the front panel.
main decoration Naval Cathedral is, of course, its main dome.Bright, huge, richly adorned with gold anchors, resting on the "drum" of many okonets, it creates a truly magnificent experience.
the entrance to the St. Nicholas Cathedral are some granite steps.Doors - massive, and carved images of saints.
Inside the Naval Cathedral sight involuntarily rises.The central dome of here seems even wider.Its diameter is 27 meters and the height from the floor up to the domes - 52 meters.On the sides to adjoin two domes, but smaller size.Space increases flanking open galleries.
Inside the temple amazes true greatness: a huge space full of mosaics made in Byzantine style.The interior includes numerous images of fish, seaweed, sea horses, ships.Of particular note is the iconostasis and stained canvas size of 52 square meters each.
can not ignore the black marble plaque with the names of the dead sailors - all that was salvaged and restored from oblivion.They are located around the perimeter of St. Nicholas Cathedral, and are a major feature of his.
in the chapel building has three altars, consecrated in honor of St. Nicholas, and Peter and Paul and St. John.They are placed in the western portal.The northern and southern parts are decorated with images of Our Lady of Kazan and St. Mitrofanii respectively.Restoration Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt helped bring to our times these images in all their glory and splendor.
If you admire the artistic beauty of the Naval Cathedral in ordinary days can be infinite, the date of Orthodox holidays, he is transformed into the highest degree.Countless rows of candles and lamps make panels, gilt and stained glass sparkle and shimmer, inspiring awe and solemn reverence.The effect enhances the splendor of ongoing service and the singing of the church choir, located on the balcony gallery.No more magnificent and monumental in the city of Kronstadt attractions: Naval Cathedral - a real symbol of the island of Kotlin, a monument to the heroic past of Russia Sea and the keeper of its water northern borders.
functional Naval Cathedral today
Today, St. Nicholas works in full mode.Work on the major restoration of its exterior and interior decoration, as well as spiritual and patriotic shrine status began 15 years ago when in 2000 the first time raised the question of the revival of naval traditions and Orthodox monuments return to the bosom of the Church.
In 2002, the fall on top of the temple was built a new cast at the Pushkin Sofia plant seven-meter cross.3 years later was made first for such a long time, the liturgy in honor of St. John of Kronstadt.
direct participation in the restoration of the church took the wife of the Russian President Dmitry Medvedev - Svetlana.In March 2009, in Sergiev Posad Laurels with its participation was a meeting of the Council for the construction of guardianship Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt, which was signed by the decision to establish the eponymous charitable foundation.In May of the same year it was formed and started its activities relevant non-profit organization.
December 2009 marked the beginning of large-scale reconstruction of the temple in the city of Kronstadt.Naval Cathedral, operation is to complete the construction and decoration did not include visits to the guests and parishioners, May 28, 2013 was consecrated Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Kirill in the presence of numerous representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church, public figures, as well as the higher ranks of the Black Sea, the North, the Pacific and the Baltic Fleet.
Today the tour - not the only reason to visit the Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt.Baptism of adults and children, wedding, various services - all this is just held in St. Nicholas church, as in any other church in Russia.
I want to believe that the tragic history of the monument is finally over.Now, not only the Russians from all over the country, but many tourists from far and near abroad tend to go to the island of Kotlin in order to witness the grand sanctuary in Kronstadt - Naval Cathedral.Mode of operation though its standard - daily - but it is worth remembering that, in connection with the final discovery of a large Orthodox holidays parishioners filled the temple completely.In this regard, for a thorough acquaintance with the shrine is recommended to select normal days.