Paris Catacombs have long been the object of attention from both the locals and the side of many travelers.What attracts so many visitors each year?As a rule, it is the desire to learn about the history of the great city.Although it is no secret that sometimes Parisian catacombs go ekstremaly or adventurers.These places are actually shrouded in secrecy and mystery, and to answer the many questions still need years and years of research.
This article aims to tell you about this interesting and quite an unknown object of the French capital, as the underground city of the dead.The reader will learn the details of which, as a rule, do not tell even the most experienced tour guides.
Section 1. General description
Catacombs, stretching under the capital of France, is a system of tunnels under the city that appeared in the distant past.
mysterious underground galleries have a length of more than three hundred kilometers.The historians believe that ancient quarries have resulted from production of mat
Even during the ancient Romans quarried limestone in these places, but the mines were open-ended.Gradually, with the growth of the city has increased and the number of such factories.The bulk of the tunnel appeared during the French King Philip Augustus, who ruled in 1180-1223 years., When limestone was used for the construction of protective trees.
Section 2. Paris Catacombs.History of
total area of underground tunnels formed during the development of limestone, is about 11 thousand sq. M.m.
first mining of limestone under the earth began under Louis XI, who gave this land to the castle Vovert.In the Renaissance district of Paris grew rapidly, and by the XVII.underground catacombs of Paris, where photos can now be found in almost all guidebooks devoted to the French capital, appeared in the city, leading to the risk of failure of soil on the streets.
In 1777, King Louis XVI was set up inspection to verify the quarries operating in our time.Over 200 years of the institution's employees work to strengthen and prevent collapses in the dungeon.Many mines were filled with concrete, but to strengthen gradually eroded ground water of the Seine, and the danger of avalanches is maintained.
Section 3. Brief History
History of Paris Catacombs is directly related to the life of the citizens.How?Please find a few facts:
- The Chaillot underground galleries during the World Exhibition in Paris (1878) opened the cafe "Catacombs."Many confidently say that not to visit this place is simply impossible
- In the dungeons of the capital grow mushrooms, a favorite product in the national cuisine of France.
- famous writer Victor Hugo created the greatest epic novel "Les Miserables", the plot of which is closely linked with the underworld of Paris.
- During the Second World War quarries used by leaders of the French Resistance.In the summer of 1944 there was established the headquarters, which is located just 500 meters from a secret bunker fascists.
- In the era of the Cold War and the threat of a nuclear attack, some underground tunnels were converted by a bomb shelter.
- «Paris Catacombs" - the film is one of the few that is not filmed on the set, but directly in the dungeons themselves.
Section 4. What is the Ossuary?
In the Middle Ages the Catholic Church is not banned burials near churches, most of which were located in urban areas.In the cemetery of the Innocents, the largest in Paris, buried more than two million people.There lie the remains of not only the laity, but also of people who died during the plague and died in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.Also buried in the cemetery of hundreds of unidentified bodies.
Not everyone knows that often the graves reached a depth of 10 meters, and a mound of earth was increased to 3 meters.
Not surprisingly, the city cemetery subsequently became a source of spread of infection, and in 1763 Parliament banned the mass graves in the city.In 1780, after the collapse of the wall separating the urban area from the graveyard, the cemetery is completely closed, and within Paris, no one else was buried.
long time remains after disinfection exported to the underground quarries Tomb-Issoire.Workers laid the bone at a depth of 17 meters, with the result that there was a wall, and there was almost 780 meters of galleries with the remains of the dead, who were placed in a circle.So in the catacombs of Paris in 1786 it was based Ossuary.It found peace about six million people, including many well-known personalities, but even more - no one knows.
Section 5. Paris Catacombs today
According to travelers entering the ossuaries did not even notice that he was at a depth of 20 meters.Here you can see the wall paintings of the XVIII century., Various monuments and historical exhibits, the altar, located in the mine air supply.
guests and local residents claim that paying attention to the ceiling, you will notice a black line - "Ariadne's thread" that helps avoid getting lost in the galleries in the past, when there was no electricity.Now the cave is still preserved place has not changed since then: the monuments and bas-reliefs mounted on graves of centuries past;a well for the extraction of limestone;supporting pillars for the roof.
In general, it should be noted that the Paris Catacombs (2014 - another confirmation) are becoming increasingly popular attraction of the French capital.
Section 6. How to get inside
Entrance to the Paris Catacombs is located near the metro station "Denfert Rochereau" (Denfert-Rochereau).Landmark - lion sculpture.The catacombs are open daily (except Mondays) from 10.00 to 17.00.Cost of the tour - 8-10 euros (children under 14 - free).
way, seasoned travelers are advised to pay attention to the fact that individual visits are forbidden.
Currently available to visitors gallery length of 2.5 kilometers.There are also closed areas dangerous to visit.In November 1955 in Paris, it was specifically passed a law banning stay in these places.And since 1980, the observance of these rights should be separate brigade of the police.
Section 7. The more dangerous illegal visit
Despite all the prohibitions are thrill seekers who risked their lives to illegally enter the dungeon through the sewer manholes, subway stations, and so on. D.
underground galleries and narrowlow labyrinths have sophisticated moves, where it is easy to get lost.For example, in 1793 the church watchman Val-de-Grace tried to find old quarries wineries, but lost.His remains found only many years later, knowing the poor guy on the keys and the remaining clothes.
modern "heroes" too much, but the local police are doing everything possible to prevent such unfortunate travelers inside.
In this country really has a lot of interesting things: the Eiffel Tower, the Louvre, the amazing ancient city, ocean, endless fields of vineyards ... France Paris catacombs, however, should be stored exclusively positive moments and happy moments.Dissuade you from making rash decisions is ready to anyone who has managed to go inside of said object.