747: the scheme of the cabin

In today's world of aviation rule score huge winged cars.Among subsonic passenger flights are several giants able to lift into the air four - five hundred people at one sitting.On their background stands out "747", which will allow the scheme to place the cabin travelers on two passenger decks simultaneously.

Size matters

The era of the postwar period was marked by explosive demand in the aviation market.Global growth in passenger traffic in the sixties put the engineers of concern "Boeing" difficult task.It was necessary to design a plane twice spindle while "seven hundred and seven."National company "Pan American" does not cope with the flow of people wishing to carry out air travel by air in the shortest possible time.This situation has forced her to place a tender for the development, production, testing and delivery of the largest aircraft in the world turbojet thrust.

Increased production

"Pan American" lived up to expectations management "Boeing" and ordered twenty-five aircraft of the

first one hundred copies of the pilot episode.A year later, in 1971, the airline placed an order for the same number of aircraft, "Boeing 747 200", the scheme which the cabin and more powerful engine allows to increase the total number of payload and passengers on board.

aircraft giant built, tested and certified in less than four years, which is very short even for new models of small aircraft.The existing plant aviakontserna not allowed to build such large size machines in their shops.They are there just would not fit.Especially under the "747", the scheme provides for a cabin that more of the upper deck, and the altitude of the cockpit on the upper deck was built a new factory in Everett, Washington.

Interesting facts

Work was accelerated pace.Exclusively for the new class of aircraft the company "Pratt & Whitney" designed oversized turbofan jet engine thrust index JT9T.The unit has a high bypass ratio and sets the number of four pieces, two on each wing.An interesting fact is that the company has gone on a little trick.In order to enable the replacement of the failed engine in airports, far from service centers, an additional attachment point of the engine has been installed under the fuselage near the engine mounts two.Thus the donor delivered aircraft engine spare his broken brother, soaring five-mounted engine, but managing only four of them.

Another interesting fact is associated with high cockpit on this monster.In order to develop in the future pilots of 747 piloting skills and a sense of speed at this altitude (and feel desired speed at this altitude is not easy - it is perceived significantly lower than the actual), was invented by a special simulator.On the roof of the truck set workplace pilot in the cockpit layout "747".Driving the vehicle interior and the structure of its roof admitted the possibility of safe operation of the hybrid in a closed area.He used to practice taxiing procedures, setting the parking lot and enter the pre / executive launch future pilots.The simulator is called "Van Waddell" in honor of Jack Waddell, the first test pilot of this new series.

dim prospects

development of a new aircraft design and construction of such scale plant unprecedented proportions almost put the company on the brink of bankruptcy.However, the multi-million dollar profits from the sales of the first models of a fully recoup the costs by bringing balance to aviakontserna previously unattainable level.

However, despite this positive development, the future has already created a series of aircraft remained unclear.It did not help to solve the problem and update the model series to "Boeing 747 300", the scheme interior which can accommodate significantly more passengers than in the previous version of the two-hundredth, by increasing the length of the upper deck.Questions remain unchanged.How cost-effective to use such a plane?Whether it is economic, including at long range?Do yourself a huge justify the cost of its lease?

competitors are not asleep

Doubts top managers and owners of companies engaged in passenger transportation, spurred also fuel crisis in the world in the early seventies.The explosive growth of oil prices instantly inflated prices for tickets.Demand for air travel began to fall sharply.Oil poured into the fire, and troubled competitors, including within companies.In addition to new products of the market, such as the DC-10, L-1011, and the A300, the new widebody B767 confident to win their position in competition with the model "747".Driving salon "seven hundred sixty seven" allows you to accommodate a smaller number of passengers, but it was much more economical, more compact and less expensive to maintain.

Prospective update

similar challenges currently facing young aviagigant heavenly space, "Airbus A380".It was developed by European manufacturer Airbus A3XX on the program, to create a competition to gain momentum from the manufacturer states.In response to this move the Americans launched the project model "Boeing 747 500".Driving salon promising generation series allowed up to 800 people per flight.In parallel to the work of the project launched six series of winged machines with similar flight characteristics, but these ideas have remained on paper.

In 2005, the company announced another update of his creation.Elongated five and a half meters of the running version of the 747-400 first flew on February 8, 2010.Models were assigned code 747-8, or your company's coding model, "747 800".Driving updated aircraft cabin can carry fifty to one passenger and two cargo aviapoddona more than the previous version of the V744.The passenger version of the aircraft as there have been significant changes in the eye.Login for passengers has become more spacious, stairs to the second deck became flatter, and in the version SkyBunks down to the lower deck can be on the second staircase.

Russian realities

In Russia, the main customer models "747" - "Transaero".The scheme operated by the carrier aircraft cabin offers 522 places in most of the 20 boards, running on different routes.Comments guides, drivers and passengers are mostly positive.The machine understandable, comfortable, easy to control in the air.High landing aerobatic team provides a better overview on taxiing, and thanks to its unusual shape of the fuselage, the other pilots immediately notice "Transaero Boeing 747".Driving and flexibility of its interior layout allows carriers to establish showrooms and service classes for various standards, including their own.A remarkable passenger cabin and the ability of the aircraft to land on the main runway standard lengths gives this car an additional advantage over their European competitors.