In the center of Vologda is historical and architectural ensemble, which was founded by the decree of Ivan IV as a fortress (1567), and served as a defensive role in the XVI - XVII centuries.At the beginning of the XIX century, its walls and towers were dismantled.Today is the Vologda Kremlin State Museum-Reserve.We'll tell you about this monument of history and architecture.
Vologda Kremlin - History
Kremlin Construction began in the spring of 1566, on the eve of the Apostles Jason and Sosipater.Supervised work visiting engineer from the UK Humphrey Locke.
Ivan the Terrible had planned to use the Vologda Kremlin as his own residence.Allotted for the construction of territory in the north limited the Vologda River, in the south ditch was dug, which today is known as the river scrofula, from the west border ran along the present street of Leningrad.
In 1571 construction works were suspended due to the departure of the king.At this point, it was erected a stone wall and eleven towers, two of which
later appeared in the Kremlin cathedral church - a magnificent stone building, St. Sophia Cathedral.At the same time there was a royal palace made of wood, and the Church of Joachim and Anna.It was built a wooden stockade and a 21-hipped tower.Stone wall was only from the south-east and north-west.Despite the fact that the Vologda Kremlin has not yet been completed, even at that time he hit his huge size.
next three wooden towers and four intermediates were built during the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich.
streets located inside the Kremlin were planned taking into account the direction of the main roads, which were built from the Spassky Gate, and led to the St. Sophia Cathedral.Between highways created residential streets and driveways.Central Square became known as the Cathedral.On it were the St. Sophia Cathedral, the royal palace and the bishop's ward.
Vologda Kremlin had public services are located along the eastern wall, which led to the river scrofula.Opposite was a small writing hut - it sat scribes.Next door was disgraced prison, and her eight-standing barn in which to store the grain harvested from the county people.A little further south Pyatnitskikh organized lip hut in which sat labial headman.They investigate criminal cases.There is also a high fence and surrounded the prison yard.
in the Kremlin was organized by the famous shopping area.In 1711, it was built on twelve rows.Later, when they became scarce, shopping ranks began to build on the banks of scrofula.
between Spassky and Vologda towers located Gostiny Dvor, who was in 1627 the territory of the length of 98 meters 92 meters wide.There were sovereign barns, built under one roof, the Church of Peter and Paul.
Today Vologda Kremlin - it is a historical and cultural center of the city.The remains of many fortifications today are presented in the form of ponds and ditches in the museum park and the river scrofula.
first museum in Vologda appeared in the XIX century.It was the house of Peter I, which received its first visitors in 1885.11 years later (1896) in Vologda appeared diocesan Drevnehranilische, which contained the antiquities religious values and important documents of the Vologda diocese.
first art gallery in Vologda appeared in 1911.By this time include the creation of the Museum and rodinovedeniya.
in March 1923, according to the decision of the local authorities, all the museums combined.
On the basis of the regional museum was organized Vologda State Historical-Architectural Museum-Reserve.
Today he combines Vologda Kremlin and 9 branches.It:
- Architectural and Ethnographic Museum.
- Museum of lace.
- House of Peter I.
- «Vologda link" (museum).
- House Museum Mozhaiskogo AF
- Apartment Museum Batiushkov KN
- «Literature.Art.Century XX »(museum).
- «Forgotten Things" (Museum).
- «Vologda at the turn of XIX - XX centuries" (exposition).
This is the oldest stone building in town.Vologda Kremlin and St. Sophia Cathedral - the magnificent monuments of architecture and history of the XVI century.The temple has a very impressive size.The walls have a length of 38.5 meters, the height exceeds 59 meters.
Sophia Cathedral is an example of Russian church architecture of the XVI century.Such buildings were common in the cities, they were built by the type of the Assumption Cathedral in Moscow.However, Vologda Cathedral differs from other analogs of brevity architecture that gives the cathedral a specific northern rigor.
Sophia Cathedral has a characteristic feature.In accordance with the ancient canons of the Church altar of the church must always be facing east.By order of Ivan the Terrible altar of the cathedral built in such a way that it is directed to the northeast.According to the researchers, Ivan IV wanted the altar of the temple facing the river, even though it was contrary to the traditions of church building.
Before our time completely preserved wooden five-tiered gilded iconostasis.It was created in 1738 and was the third since the construction of the cathedral.Icons for him, wrote a Polish painter Maxim Iskritsky.
During its long history the St. Sophia Cathedral many times reconstructed.Its modern form it is found only in the XX century.
Belfry Vologda Kremlin
In 1659 on the territory of the Kremlin was built of stone octagonal belfry.
In 1869, Bishop Palladius, who considered that the bell tower of the cathedral should be above all the bells in the diocese, commissioned the architect VN Shildknehtu rebuild it.The tent was dismantled and built on the old bell tower still exists today, has pointed arches ringing.
main feature of this bell tower began to chime, which were made in Moscow, the factory brothers Gutenop (1871).They are today the main town clock.
where a unique collection of ancient bells.Well preserved bells XVII.Some of them have the original title - "All" (1627), "Big Swan" (1689), "Little Swan" (1656) and others.
At the level of the base of the head is a small observation deck.From it you can admire the extraordinary views of the city, river.
Chapter gilded bell tower.Last time this work was carried out in 1982.Then it took 1200 g of gold leaf.
House of Peter I
This museum began to work in Vologda in the distant 1872.It is located in the historic part of the city, on the banks of the Vologda River, in the former home of Gutmann.It is the only surviving building of the Dutch merchants.There is often visited Peter I.
now the museum's collection in the hundreds of exhibits.All of them - silent witnesses of the old era.This furniture, which remained engraved "AG" (Adolf Gutmann) belonging to the owners of the house.
especially valuable exhibits are the orders that established by Peter I. It is, of course, the Order of St. Andrew.In those days, they were rewarded with 38 people.
Today, many of our fellow countrymen come to inspect the Vologda Kremlin, photos which you can see in this article.
Museum includes 40 monuments, total area - 9000 square meters.m. It offers literature, art, natural science, historical and ethnographic exhibition.The museum's collection includes more than 500 thousand exhibits - priceless works of art of ancient Russia, charts, manuscripts, old coins and much more.
More than 60 thousand exhibits on display at various exhibitions.Many specimens from the collections of the museum were exhibited in England and Germany, the Vatican and France, Finland and the Netherlands, Hungary and Austria.All visitors to the Vologda Kremlin tours can visit both personal and group.And excursion programs are designed for different age groups, starting with pre-school children.On the basis of the museum and its branches regularly conducted more than 80 tours.
Today many tourists go to the Vologda Kremlin.Hours Museum - every day from 10.00 to 17.00.The museum is closed to visit on Monday and Tuesday.In the Kremlin entrance is free every day.