If anyone interested in ancient fortification buildings, castles and palaces, then welcome to the Ukraine!Particularly large concentration of such facilities in Lviv and Ternopil regions.The most visited sites are considered Olesko, Pidhirtsi and Zolochiv Castle.However, the majority of them are in need of restoration and basic care, but still noteworthy buildings curious tourists, because in addition to the architectural performance fraught a historical message.And Zolochevskaya citadel - is no exception.
chronicles mention about the existence of a small town on the site of modern Radeche Zolocheva, at the intersection of trade routes, even 900 years ago, in 1180.But attacks Tatars have left no trace of him.Yet soon the settlement reappears.In 1441 it became the possession of the Polish tycoon Jan Seninskogo, and 80 years later received the Magdeburg law, ie a system of self-government.Despite the constant attacks of the Tatars, from that time the city began to grow rapidly: to es
Peak flowering of the city associated with the native magnates Sobieski.The first owner of this dynasty - Marek Sobieski - Zolochev bought in 1598.At that time, the defensive function was performed wooden fortifications.Later he appeared Zolochiv castle.Who built it?
Appears stone fortress
early 17th - the end of the 18th century was truly the golden age for Zolochev.Another patron of the city began after Marek Jakub Sobieski.He transformed the wooden buildings in stone.Then there were all the main building of the castle in the form in which we can contemplate them as we are today, with the exception of the Chinese Palace, which was built later.On one of the walls of the castle is designated completion date - 1634.
Fortification of the new method
Technologies went ahead, artillery became more sophisticated, for example, the guns of that time may have already overcome almost any wall.Even the massive stone building is not very effectively saved from the shells.Therefore, there was a need for new methods of fortification.Then came the way and the new Dutch system of building fortifications.
basis of this system of fortifications were earthen mounds that from the outside of the reinforcing stone walls.The total perimeter is 400 m. The height of the walls up to 11 meters. And they built is not perpendicular to the surface and a slope to climb was harder.Inside the fortified quadrangle built dwellings, that is, it combines the functions of defense and housing.At the corners were four pentagonal bastion.All this outpost was built on a hill, surrounded by a moat was dug stuck stakes.Innovation was exactly in earthen ramparts, because they were the easiest to recover after the attacks, and it can be done even during the hostilities.It is for this technology and built Zolochiv Castle, the disclosure of which is evidence in favor of his invincibility.
only once the stronghold fell under the onslaught of the Turks - in 1672 - and was destroyed, but its then owner Jan Sobieski (who two years later became the king of the Rzeczpospolita Jan third) rebuilt the castle and made it moremore powerful.Strength test was not long in coming, and in 1675 Zolochevskaya citadel justified its existence, having stood during the attack of the Tatars.
From that time until 1696 Zolochiv castle served as the royal residence.Although the King visited there often, but this place was very fond of his wife - Mary Casimir.And for good reason.Large two-storey palace was built in the Renaissance style.Four fireplaces warmed all the rooms.There was a king room, a treasury system listening to conversations, secret entrances - all in the best traditions of the royal court.For example, an underground tunnel connected the bedroom spouses.Also, the king of the underground could go unnoticed to leave the fortress.Worthy of special mention sewage system.Chutes, for waste water from the roofs were connected to the toilet bowl so that have carried out all the impurities in the cesspool.It was a breakthrough at the time.
Marie Casimir Zolochevsky haunted castle.The story goes that in Zolochevsky realm precisely because it appeared the Chinese Palace.In Europe, while there was a fashion for all associated with the East.Although the round rotunda existed during the time of her father-in-Jakub Sobieski, but her desire to add the lateral extension and designed in a style reminiscent of oriental.Near Chinese Palace small public garden was laid out in an appropriate style.
further fate of the castle
After his father Jan Sobieski Zolochiv castle sometimes visited his son Jakub, but the former glory of the palace is over.Since the mid-18th century they owned Prince Radziwill, but they do not particularly care about his departure or development because there was no need in the fortified citadel.Thus began a period of gradual destruction of the castle.In 1772, the fortress became the property of the new Austrian government.While all the valuables of the palaces are gone, and the new owners of the castle housed the hospital first, and then the state prison where criminals were kept.
Castle in Soviet times
When in 1939 in the area instead of the Austro-Hungarian reign the Soviet authorities, the purpose of the castle has not changed.However, now it has become known as the Lviv prison № 3. Then holding political prisoners.NKVD destroyed in the dungeons of this once magnificent palace of more than 700 people.In 1953, the walls of the room began to execute a more humane role, then housed a vocational school.Only in 1986, officials recognized the cultural and historical value of this monument of architecture and gave it to the jurisdiction of the Lviv Art Gallery, which began restoration works.
Castle Status today
Although the reconstruction is still ongoing, but now Zolochiv castle is open to tourists.He is a guided tour of Lviv region "Golden Horseshoe".
can explore the Grand Palace, the Chinese palace, castle courtyard, gate towers, fortifications.Unfortunately, almost all the interior of the palace has been preserved to this a hand and Austria-Hungary, and the Soviet government.But now the walls of lush halls housed the exhibition of Lviv gallery.
Zolochiv Castle: interesting facts
- toilets built in the palace are perhaps the first in Europe.
- There was an underground tunnel to eavesdrop conversations, called "long ear."
- Among the exhibits is the largest canvas in Europe, measuring 9 x 9 m.
- Near the entrance to the museum are stones with inscriptions in an unknown language, the origin of which is associated with the Order of the Knights Templar.
Zolochiv Castle: how to get
If you drive on your truck, you have to follow the highway M-12 (Lviv - Ternopil) before turning on the village of Suburban and roll this turn.Along this road, and it is Zolochiv castle.
How to get there by bus?As easy as pie.In Lviv, it is necessary to get into any of them going to Ternopil (leaving every half hour), get off at the bus station Zolocheva and find out the Castle, 3. It is a 5-minute walk from the bus station.
Among the well-preserved castles times Rzeczpospolita most groomed by far the Zolochiv Castle.Photos exterior and interior indicate that the restoration carried out on the glory, and the lock is ready to receive visitors.