Basic notation on the tires.

when buying tires for the car is very important to understand that represent all these weird at first the letters and numbers on the sides of the tires.Without specific knowledge to make the right choice, without the help of experts, is simply impossible.It is in these signs laid down the basic parameters by which, in fact, selected rubber.

Decoding tire designation does not require any additional ordinary buyer knowledge.To choose the right tires, you just know what size they need, and how and when they will be used.

Getting Started

in the owner's manual typically prescribed some advice on the correct selection of tires.This takes into account the type of rims (steel or aluminum), season use (summer, winter), and a standard factory size.Naturally, not every driver adheres to these recommendations, because of what car tires can be installed, which by its parameters does not meet the requirements of the manufacturer.

So better to start with a study of the standard requirements for a certain brand

of car tires.If you are satisfied with the type and amount of rubber, which is mounted on the vehicle, you simply overwrite all existing designations.

main bus parameters: designation, marking

All lettering on the tire sidewalls are applied to both sides.Basic notation on the buses carry information about:

  • producers;
  • standard size;
  • rate index;
  • load index;
  • seasonal;
  • date of manufacture.

In addition to these, there may be additional symbols on buses informing on:

  • construction tires;
  • type tires;
  • material of construction of the sidewall;
  • the maximum allowable pressure;
  • direction of rotation;
  • heat resistance;
  • quality standard and others.

data Manufacturer

designations on tires containing the name of the manufacturer, applied to the side wall in large print.I do not notice it is simply not possible.

Producer - is the first thing is to decide.Such popular brands such as "Nokia", "Michelin", "Dunlop", "Yokohama", "Pirelli", "Continental", "Bridgestone", needs no introduction.Tires of these companies are known worldwide for their quality and reliability.But there are other manufacturers whose names few people know.Here in this case, you need expert advice or search for objective reviews.

tire sizes

This is a fundamental criterion in the choice of rubber.It includes four parameters:

  • width;
  • height profile;
  • type of construction;
  • boarding (internal) diameter.

tire size designation looks like this: 185 / 65R15, where 185 - the width of the working surface of the tire (in mm) 65 - Percentage section height by width (185: 100 x 65% = 120.25 mm), R- type of construction (radial), 15 - the inner diameter (inches).

Some motorists are often confused marked «R» with a radius of rubber.In fact, this is not the tire size designation and type of construction, depending on the location of cords.They can be arranged as a radial (R), and diagonal (D).Tyres with a diagonal cord are much less common today, as the radial, being more practical, they are almost forced out.

speed index

This value indicates the maximum allowed speed of the machine, in which rubber is guaranteed to cope with their tasks.Despite the fact that the producers almost always overestimate this option to overclock your machine to a given speed is strongly discouraged.It also should be noted that foreign companies producing tires, have no idea about the state of our roads, so in any case do not try to check these speed indexes.Tyres indication of the maximum acceleration is marked one letter of the alphabet indicating the speed limit.We often found tires marked with the following letters:

  • «L» - 120 km / h;
  • «M» - 130 km / h;
  • «N» - 140 km / h;
  • «P» - 150 k / h;
  • «Q» - 160 km / h;
  • «R» - 170 km / h;
  • «S» - 180 km / h;
  • «T» - 190 km / h;
  • «H» - 210 km / h;
  • «V» - 240 km / h;
  • «W» - 270 km / h;
  • «Y» - 300 km / h.

for sports cars and vehicles participating in various competitions, there is a special designation of the tires.Speed ​​index «ZR», for example, indicates that the tires may be used in critical speed modes, i.e.240 km / h.

Index weight load

This index represents the maximum load per tire in kilograms.However, to find suitable tires by dividing the weight of the car will not turn on 4.It should be borne in mind that the weight of the machine is distributed unevenly between the axles, so the resulting index will be significantly overstated.First we need to take away from the vehicle weight of 20% of its value (for off-road vehicles - 30%), and then divided by 4.

Markings on the tire load index contains two or three digits that correspond to the weight.For the definition of the criteria for different types of cars there are special tables, we also consider the basic exemplary figures for passenger cars:

  • 70 - 335 kg;
  • 75 - 387 kg;
  • 80 - 450 kg;
  • 85 - 515 kg;
  • 90 - 600 kg;
  • 95 - 690 kg;
  • 100 - 800 kg;
  • 105 - 925 kg;
  • 110 - 1030 kg.

is also worth noting that the higher load index, the thicker and coarser tire carcass, which significantly reduces the quality of its depreciation.

Winter and summer tires

seasonal criterion of all tires are divided into three types:

  • summer;
  • winter;
  • season.

Summer tires usually has no special labeling.Visually distinguish it from other types of the longitudinal grooves can be designed to divert water.Moreover, they lack microdesign.Summer tires pretty hard, to ensure optimum durability and maximum grip at temperatures above zero.

Designation of winter tires can contain either the word «Winter», or an icon in the form snowflakes.They significantly milder summer and have a pronounced high protector with microdesigns.Designation of winter tires snowflake guarantee their safe use in conditions of severe frosts.

Very often motorists saw to tires marked with the letters «MS» or «M + S», mistake them for the winter.But it is not the designation of winter tires.This marking of the possibility of using rubber in the special conditions.

designation «MS» tires - it «Mud and Snow», which translates to English as "mud and snow."It can be applied to any tires, regardless of the season.In other words, the designation «MS» tires - it is a sign indicating that the tire is designed for off-road or on the pavement, covered with wet mud or snow gruel.Such tires are called cleats, and they are used for the most part or for rally cars or the SUV.

season tires: the symbol marking

There are universal tires, which can be used at any time of the year.Designation season tires depends on conditions of operation and may have the following abbreviations:

  • «AS» (All Season, Any Season) - all seasons;
  • «R + W» (Road + Winter) - all season for cold regions;
  • «AW» (Any Weather) - all season for any weather.

additional symbols of all-season tires often contains the inscription «Aqua», «Water», «Aquacontact», «Rain» or drawing an umbrella.This means that the tire is able to effectively remove water from the plane of contact with the road surface, which significantly reduces the likelihood of hydroplaning.These are called rain tires.

But do not forget that all-season tires - a concept quite conventional, and use it in extreme conditions is strongly recommended.

date of manufacture of the date of manufacture is necessary to pay attention not only when buying tires that were in use, but also on the acquisition of a new one.The fact is that unscrupulous sellers often buy at a low price rubber, which for years was lying unclaimed in the warehouses.

tire manufacturers claim that their long-term storage leads to the fact that the tires lose their shape and performance characteristics.Naturally, neither of which security in the use of such rubber we can not go.

Check the date of manufacture tire easy.Marking is also applied to the side surface and consists of four digits indicating the week and year.For example, label 1609 indicates that the tire made at week 16, 2009.Virtually all the world's tire manufacturers adhere to this labeling, so its absence on the side - the first sign of non-certified products.

way, until 2000 date was designated five digits, the first two of which - the number of weeks, and the other three - year production code.

Other designations

But besides basic notation often rubber has other markings:

  • «Max Pressure» with digital indicator - indicates the maximum permissible inflation pressure (usually in kilopascals or bar);
  • «Inside», «Autside» - indicate that the tire asymmetric;
  • «Rotation» with the direction of the arrow - indicates that the tire has a directional structure should be set accordingly;
  • «Temperature» A, B, C - the index of heat resistance (A - maximum);
  • «Traction» A, B, C - the index of inhibition determines the efficiency of emergency braking (A - best);
  • «Tubeless» - tubeless tire;
  • «Tube Type» - a tire designed for use with the camera;
  • «RSC» - special tires with technology Run Flat System Component, which allows the vehicle to continue to move at a puncture or cut tires.This tire is able to go up to 100 km in the absence of internal pressure;
  • «TWI» - an inscription indicating that the tire has a special "lighthouse", located in the groove between the tread, which is an indicator of wear;
  • «PR» - the strength of the tire carcass, the estimated number of layers of rubber.

Why tires need colored circles

Perhaps you have met the bus with colored circles on the side.About their origins a lot of rumors, starting with the fact that this technology marks required only during the production of rubber, and ending with the fact that the manufacturer or seller thus aiming substandard or defective tire.

In fact, these colored circles indicate the structural features of the tire.Explanation of designations of tires marked with yellow or red spots, is:

  • yellow circle - the easiest portion of the tire;
  • red circle - the most difficult portion of the tire;
  • green circle - tire for initial installation on the vehicle at the factory

But why would anyone know where a light station, and where heavy?It's simple!Typically tires with cameras mounted tire the easiest area to the nipple.This helps to achieve the perfect balance during rotation.

In some cases, on the tire sidewall can be found marking with figures in a circle, square, triangle, the applied white paint.It's kind of a mark that the product has passed quality control (like our OTC).In addition, it points to a specific brand of controller, responsible for checking.

colored line on the tread

Almost all new tires are stripes on the working side of the tire.They are also not of particular interest for the owner of a car and do not bear for him to any useful information.Colour marking of tires is designed to facilitate their identification in storage.

When tires are thousands of piles of stock, the employee is unable to determine the type and size, not seeing the markings located on the sidewall.It is through these colored strips arranged in a certain order, you can clearly identify the type of tire and its size.