outstanding monument of defensive architecture of the XVI century is Bender Fortress.Photos of this stronghold, as well as interesting information about the pages of its rich history, you'll find in this article.
Bender: foundation of the city and the construction of the fortress town of Bendery
originated somewhere in the beginning of the XV century.Initially, it was called Tighina (by the way, Romanians and Moldovans some of his so-called so far).The origin of the place name is likely related to the word "draft", because the very large settlement emerged near the crossing of the Dniester.
renamed the town Bendery Turks seized the local land in 1538.They are the same two years later, and began to build a fortress here.Although it is known that before Bender entered the defensive belt of the Moldavian King Stefan the Great.
Bendery fortress was designed by the renowned architect Sinan, who during his long (nearly a century) life built within what was then the Ottoman Empire for more than three
impregnable fortress Bender Evliya Celebi
famous Turkish traveler of the XVI century, gives us the first historical description of the fortress in the Transnistrian city.Bender Fortress is a typical Western European fortification bastion type.Its construction began almost immediately after entering the city in the ports.The entire town was surrounded by a deep ditch at the beginning and high shaft.The very same fortress, which occupied a huge area of 67 hectares, is divided into two parts: upper and lower.
Due to its geographical location, Bender fortress has become a key strategic point for many years.Critical she played during the Russian-Turkish wars.
Bendery fortress history remembers numerous attempts to assault her.However, most of them have been unsuccessful.Up until the 1770s remained completely impregnable fortress.
fortress during the Russian-Turkish wars
During the Russian-Turkish wars of the Russian troops, as you know, took the three strategically crucial fortress on the banks of the Dniester.The first capture of Bender fortress held in 1770.The operation, which lasted more than 60 days, led by Perth Panin.The attackers managed to destroy one of the towers of the castle, after which the Russian stormed.During the capture of the fortress Bender killed up to 30% of the whole army Panin - about six thousand soldiers.However, the goal was achieved: the end of September 1770 year Russian military orchestra in Bendery fortress is known in her capture.
Incidentally, the Russian Empress Catherine II criticized this victory, calling it a Pyrrhic victory.Nevertheless, the Ottoman Empire lost this important object was a real tragedy.
subsequent capture of the fortress Bendery Russian took place in 1789 and 1806.But then everything went without blood.So, in 1789 Russian troops under the leadership of Gregory Potemkin took it without a fight, and in 1806 - the fortress was captured as a result of cunning and bribery Turkish garrison guarding it.
It is known that Russian-Turkish War ended very badly for the Ottoman Empire.After their completion Russia has extended its influence over all the land of Bessarabia.
Interesting facts about the Bendery fortress
With this architectural monument and fortification is associated a lot of interesting facts, which attract tourists to the fortress.Here are some of them:
- Bender fortress fulfilled its defensive function right up to the end of the twentieth century!Even today, she is stationed near the military unit of the unrecognized state - the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
- Fortress sheltered in 1709 Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa and the Swedish king Karl XII, who fled after the defeat at Poltava.Soon Mazepa died here, on the outskirts of Bender, in the village of Varnitsa.
- With Bender fortress due adoption in 1711 the so-called Europe's first constitution - the Constitution Orlyk, who was the successor of the deceased Mazepa.
- in Bendery fortress now houses the Museum of Torture - the only one in Transnistria.
core of Munchausen in the yard of the Bendery fortress
Not everyone knows that the famous inventor and adventurer Baron Munchausen - this is not a fictional character.A man under the same name, actually existed.Baron Munchausen from the German Bondenverdera in the middle of the XVIII century served in the Russian army and took part in the capture of Russian Bakhchisarai, Perekopa, Khotin and Yevpatoria.But take Bendery fortress in Russian this time failed, and Baron became a witness.
Overall, storyteller Munchausen could easily "fly" on the famous nucleus of any Fortress Europe.But Bender first sobrazili that can be successfully used for the story itself.In the yard of the Bendery fortress established the most legendary cannon ball, which flew the Saxon Baron.
Current status and reconstruction of Bendery fortress
In 2008, before the scheduled large-scale reconstruction of the fortress.In the same year, Bender had a theatrical performance by taking Bender stronghold.At the fortress arranged the alley of Russian glory, a monument to the Constitution of Orlyk, as well as the famous Baron Munchausen.
At the fortress now operates two museum: the first - a kind of museum of torture, and the second is to know about the history of Bendery fortress.Since the autumn of 2012 for the tourist souvenir shop, where, in particular, you can buy fabulous ceramics and wood, made by local craftsmen.
the fall of 2013 began the second major reconstruction of the fortress Bendery.In particular, work began on the restoration of the architectural complex of the two towers.In addition, the artists painted the interiors of the fortress temple of Alexander Nevsky.By the way, this is the year the dynamics of growth of attendance was the largest: in 2013 the fortress was visited by over 14 thousand people.
In 2014, the complex will have an excellent shooting range, where every tourist can work out in the shooting of the bow or crossbow, and feel like a real medieval warrior.In the same year work began on the restoration of the lower fortress.Today Bender Fortress is increasingly becoming an attractive tourist site.The only thing that can confuse tourists here - a military unit stationed nearby.While the soldiers themselves have long been accustomed to tourists.
Bender Fortress imprinted on stamps and banknotes as the Republic of Moldova and the Transnistrian leader.So, you can see the stronghold in the denominations of 100 Moldovan lei and 25 Transdniestrian rubles.In addition, the fortress is depicted on souvenir 100-ruble coins issued in Transnistria in 2006.
Bender Fortress: hike, while the
Every year more and more tourists from near and far abroad has attracted the city of Bendery.Of course, the central landmark is the name of the famous Bendery Fortress.Excursion to the fortress - it is the best way to learn about the most fascinating pages of its history.
Bender Fortress today is open to everyone who wants to.She works every day from 9 am to 18:00.The cost of admission to the territory of the fortress is 25 Transnistrian rubles.It is worth noting two important nuances: firstly, the payment can be made only in the currency of the unrecognized republic, and secondly, the price of admission for the representatives of foreign countries - will be twice as high.
The castle can be ordered and tour, the price of which will range from 50 to 150 Transnistrian rubles (depending on group size and length of the tour).Recently, the fortress became possible to order a guide, English speaking.However, for such a service to foreign tourists will have to pay another 25 rubles.
Bender Fortress Museum torture
there on the territory of Bendery fortress unique in its content Museum - Museum of Torture.It was opened as recently as autumn 2012.This museum exhibits medieval weapons, tools and machines for a variety of gloomy torture.It should be noted that a separate fee for entrance to this museum is not necessary.
The idea to create such a museum workers Fortress was born suddenly, after a visit to one of the castle towers.As it is known, he was previously in prison for petty thieves and looters.The tower is still preserved vintage handcuffs and shackles for prisoners.They soon added a few more exotic instruments of torture, and as a result, the tower was a museum.Today, tourists can see here the interrogation chair, kolenodrobilku, plunges goats and other terrible things.
In conclusion ...
Bender Fortress - a unique fortification monument in southeastern Europe.Built back in 1540, the year she experienced in his lifetime many turbulent events.Today the castle - the most popular tourist site in Transnistria.