Spratly Islands - a small archipelago in the South China Sea.For a long time they have been the subject of contention between several States, has long been trying to take control.The most beautiful place in the world has become a point of military action, irreconcilable disputes between several states.
in the South China Sea more than 400 different rocks, reefs and other formations, of which about 200 part of the Spratly archipelago.All of these islands was originally a coral origin.They are low and small.Altitude is not more than 6 meters.Once these island formation were called Coral Island.
Spartli Islands are in the South China Sea.This sea - semi-enclosed space of the Pacific, located between the shores of Asia, Indochina and the Malay Peninsula, the islands of Sumatra, Borneo, Palawan, Mindoro and Taiwan.South China Sea is rich islands.Nearby are several major routes of supertankers in the world.According to scientific data, in an area concentrated large reserves of oil an
Most islands - is flooded tidal shoals, reefs, rocky cliffs, unfit for human life, as well as a serious problem for marine vessels.But in terms of policy and political, these small islands are of great importance at the global level.It allows the possession of the state-owner to claim not only on the islands themselves, but also on the water adjacent space, including resources.By the end of the 70s of the last century to the lifeless rocky reefs and islands of any interest was absent.
Spratlys - is an area of about 180 square kilometers.In this very area land area it is only slightly more than 10 square meters.kilometers, including occasionally appear above the surface of the sea education.Located Spratly Islands fotokotoryh presented in the article, south Paracel archipelago 500 kilometers.Their number is not constant, it depends on weather conditions and the periods of low tide.All Education scattered into the sea in an arc length of almost 1000 kilometers.Removing them from the "big land»:
- Kalimantan - 30 km.
- Palawan - 60 km.
- Vietnamese Cam Ranh seaport - 460 km.
- Chinese island of Hainan - 970 km.
Pages of history
history Spratly Islands is:
- Back in '59 BC was officially made the first mention of Chinese historians about the islands, which then became known geographers of the Han Dynasty.
- Only in 1211, the archipelago was first captured on a map of China.
- In 1405, the famous Chinese navigator Zheng He reached and visited a number of islands.
- In 1478 on the reefs of the archipelago wrecked ship carrying china.
- In 1530, explorer Alvarez De Albuquerque Diegos was sent in search of the Chinese way.He visits the western islands of the archipelago.
- In this water area in 1606 the Spaniard Andreas de Pessora calls he discovered the island - Santa Esmeralda Pekuena.It was one of the Spratly archipelago of atolls.
- In the 17th century, "Card tract of land in the South" to Ba mention the Spratly Islands, called "yellow sand" refers to the Chinese province Kuangigay.After that ruling dynasty Nguyen starts each year send to the shores of the islands 18 of its ships.
- Based on Chinese historical notes presented data dated 1710, declaring the Chinese ownership of the Spratly Islands.At the same time on the island built a small temple North East Cay.
- In 1714 three Dutch ship is wrecked off the coast of the Spratlys.Team rescued Vietnamese fishermen.The Dutch presented to the emperor, and then sent home.
- Emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty claims "Company Hoang Sa" for the islands of the South China Sea.Ships involved in the company have access to all the islands 6 times a year.
- From 1730 to 1735 years, the pirates used the Spratly Islands as a starting base for attacks on passing by the Dutch, British and Portuguese ships.In 1735, the British destroy pirate nest in the archipelago.
- In the period from 1758 to 1768 during the French admiral Charles Hector Theoden visited Vietnam in order to use the Spratly archipelago for parking their vehicles.He notices the presence of the European injection guns taken from ships wrecked off the coast of the archipelago.
- historian Le Don Kee in 1784 gives a new description of the coral islands.
- In 1786, Generalissimo Tay Son gives the order to begin the search for the islands of gold, silver and guns with sunken ships, as well as procurement of rare fish and turtle shells.To do this, select 4 ships.
- In 1791 British Captain Henry opens several Spratly island formation.They give it its official name.
- In 1798, on an island in the Spratly archipelago British establish an observation tower.Its ruins still exist.
- In 1816, Emperor Gia Long officially proclaims the sovereignty of Vietnam and its dominance over the Spratly Islands.
- In the period from 1835 to 1847 years, mention of the Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands are found repeatedly in documents of the Vietnamese rulers.At the same time there is no evidence of the ownership of the islands to China.
- In 1847, the Emperor of China issued a decree on the administration of the lands of the Spratly warships to explore the area.
- In 1848, the reigning king of Nam Ha Vietnamese generates a small military garrison to control the operation of foreign fleets in the islands.
- French historian Dubois de Jancigny in 1850 indicates direction on the islands of the King of Vietnam.
- In "Essay on the history of Vietnam," Nguyen Trong in 1876 mentions the islands as belonging to the lands of the Kingdom.
- On the island of Amboyna French lighthouse built in 1887.
- the coast of the archipelago in 1895, wrecked two ships loaded with copper.Cargo seek out and take the inhabitants of the island of Hainan.UK sends note of protest to the Chinese leadership.However, it receives a response that the area where the crash occurred, does not apply to China, and the Chinese government is not responsible for what is happening in the Spratly Islands.
- In 1898, at the signing of the Spanish-American treaty specifies the official borders of the Philippines, and the Spratly area are not included.
- In 1901, Japan forcibly seizes Dongsha Island, and in 1908 sold it to China.
- In 1906 he published "Guide to Geography of China", where clearly defined the boundaries of the country.Spratly Islands are not included.
- In June 1909, the governor of the Chinese province of Guangdong and Guangxi sends military gunboats to the islands to capture.
- French expedition in 1925 confirms that the Paracel Islands are part of the State of Vietnam.
- French to "De Lanessan" are sent to the coast to explore the archipelago of Spratly atolls and reserves of phosphates.
- In 1930, by order of the governor-general of Indochina Spratly Islands are proclaimed in France.
- In 1933 comes the military occupation of a number of islands in the South China Sea, including the Spratlys.
- In December 1933, the Spratly archipelago included in the province of Cochin China (China).Spratly Island is named Nansha.
- Minister of Foreign Affairs of Japan in March 1939, announces the Spratly Islands Japanese territory.In April France declares the protest, showing their right to the land.
- In 1945 Japan renounces its claims to the Spratlys.And Chinese troops landed on the archipelago under the pretext of disarmament of Japanese soldiers.
- In 1947, declared an official protest by the French Government of China over the illegal occupation of the Spratly Islands.But in December, the decree goes on assignment Paracel archipelagos groups of islands and Spratly Chinese name Xisha and Nansha Islands, respectively.All of them are included in China.
- In 1950, China's government troops are leaving the island, hiding in Taiwan.
- Philippine government claims ownership of the islands in 1951.China protests.The Vietnamese government Bao Dai declares its domination.At the same time Japan fully abandoned its claims.
- In 1956, there were political and military clashes between the Philippines, China, Vietnam.France informed of their legal rights to the Spratly Islands.
- Six countries before 1974 were disputes over the ownership of the archipelago.Other islands were ceded to various states.
- in January 1974 was made the first bombardment of some of the islands from China.The Vietnamese government requested the assistance of the United Nations.Then the head of the Vietnamese Foreign Ministry appealed to the United States.
- Until 1988, there were minimal hassle over the division of the territory of the islands in the South China Sea.In 1984, Brunei joined to disputes.
- In 1988 there was an armed conflict.Battle of the Spratly Islands war occurred between China and Vietnam in the area of Johnson Reef Spratly group of islands.In this killed 70 Vietnamese sailors.Battle of the Spratly Islands in 1988 has been the bloodiest for the entire period of disputes and claims.The number of dead Chinese soldiers not been established.
- Prior to 1996, were bloodless land grabs.In January 1996 there was an artillery battle between Philippine and Chinese warships.
- still territorial disputes do not cease, but switched to a peaceful course.
controversy over the Spratly
Territorial disputes, which became the center of the Spratly Islands, it belongs to any state, were based on different reasons, the main of which:
- geopolitical motives.
- control over transport routes.
- presence in the region.
- expansion of borders and economic zones.
- mastery of all natural resources in the region.
This voluntary full waiver of the Spratlys has no plans to make any state applying for them.However, a new state, claiming its interests in the archipelago.It is the US interest in the country - oil.All the islands are recognized prospective for hydrocarbons.
control of the island
Currently, the South China Sea, a difficult situation.The alignment of forces and supplies a number of the Spratly Islands as follows:
- China exercises control over the 9 atolls of the archipelago.
- Garrisons Vietnam settled on the 21 island.
- Philippines represent themselves in 8 islands.
- Malaysia monitors the 3 islands.
- on the largest island Taypindao are forces in Taiwan.
- Other Islands are free (relatively).
Application of "Law of the sea"
Now only the "Law of the sea" unable to determine the position of the islands.Now it is "effective occupation".That is the law of any country in the world has no right to claim an economic zone or territorial waters adjacent to capture shelf.This is possible only if the settlement islands and the conduct of business at them.But the majority of these islands are so small or periodically flooded by what we can not talk about their arrival.
That is why in 1994, steps were taken towards a peaceful settlement of the conflict.A resolution was adopted on the ratification of the UN Convention.Vietnam and China have come to an unspoken consensus, deciding to answer questions about the sovereignty of the Spratly Islands to postpone for 50 years.It was decided to jointly develop natural resources on a bilateral basis.
construction of artificial islands
However, the official Beijing since 2002 stepped up its efforts to develop a shelf.Work began on the construction of artificial islands.This trump card is in conflict with other states.After populating the islands, China will get power over them.
artificial islands in the Spratly archipelago - a paradise for tourists.But yet they occupy only military.China is slowly increasing the territory of "their" islands in the South China Sea.These structures will be able to accept any buildings.China is nervous about the US playing God, doing ostrovostroitelstvom turning rocky atoll in the beautiful islands with white sand beaches and green areas.In one of the former reefs built-Embarkation runway and greenhouse.On an artificial island already has 4 airfield.
Besides political purposes in the construction of islands China pursues economic interests.The creation of artificial islands will allow China to produce exclusive claims to territorial waters within 200 miles.US states not to recognize China's man-made islands in the South China Sea in 2012, but no security measures there.
Now with the help of an artificial increase in land China was able to expand its ownership of 1.5 square kilometers.Increasing the area of the islands will allow in time to join the adjacent reefs, atolls and islands.
When looking at the results of work in China there is a feeling that the Spratly Islands vacation for tourists will be able to provide a complete bliss.If the construction of the islands reaches its climax when will all the necessary infrastructure for a comfortable stay, the Spratly become "Mecca" of world tourism.Besides climatic conditions and geolocation Islands meet all the criteria of the place for a good holiday.