Solovetsky island and its attractions.

Solovetsky Islands are a unique place.On a small archipelago in the White Sea has developed a unique natural, historical and cultural complex, unique in the world does not exist.The biggest and rich in attractions is the island of Solovki, where for centuries the famous Solovetsky acting monastery.

Nature

Islands arose 9000 years ago in one of the stages of the formation of the White Sea, where after the melting of large glaciers occurred compensatory uplift of the soil.2/3 of the entire area of ​​the archipelago takes Bolshoi Solovetsky Island.

Located archipelago in the taiga zone.Unusually picturesque and varied landscape of the island: the high hills give way to lakes, flowering meadows - marshes.70% of the area is covered by forest, mostly spruce and pine.About 5% of the area falls on the tundra complexes.Dry voronichnye tundra characteristic of the coastal zone, where they are followed by the band krivostvolnyh birch (birch winding).In the central part of the island in place of felling an

d fires occur birch and aspen forests.Meadows on the coast and in the center of the island occupied by 0.1-0.2% of the total, and are characterized by rich vegetation species.About 15% of the islands make up the marsh with a predominance of upland and transitional species.Such a wide range of landscapes, presented on an area of ​​just 300 square kilometers around, it is one of the most amazing natural features of the Solovetsky archipelago.

On the islands there are more than 550 lakes.They vary in size, shape, origin, color of water, but all are very picturesque.

Where are Solovetsky Islands

Solovetsky archipelago consisting of six main islands and more than a hundred small, located in the western part of the White Sea 290 kilometers north-west of the city of Arkhangelsk, the center of the Arkhangelsk region.The total area of ​​the islands is 300 square kilometers.It is composed of the island such as:

  • Solovki (Solovetsky Large) - 218.72 square kilometers;
  • Anzersky - 47.11 square kilometers;
  • Most Muksalma - 18.96 square kilometers;
  • Small Muksalma - 1.2 sq km;
  • Big 3ayatsky - 1.25 sq km;
  • Small Zayatsky - 1.1 square kilometers.

history

history of the Solovetsky Islands begins with the development of man in the late Mesolithic.In the III millennium BCsea ​​hunters and fishermen discovered Solovetsky Islands and began their development, which lasted until the Middle Ages.Solovki found numerous traces of their economic-utilitarian and cult activities: more than 20 settlements, camps and workshops, four sanctuaries in combination with ancient sites, a lot of single stone labyrinths, thousands of artifacts.

primitive inhabitants were engaged in Solovki specific hunting marine animals and the island lake and forest game, fishing, coastal gatherers, making stone tools.In the field of the collection sites were discovered arrows, darts, axes, hunting, stone anchors, ceramics, unique iconic drilling ax and many other items.The ancient inhabitants of the archipelago were engaged in the construction of the stone labyrinths, which constructed the sanctuary.

Base Stauropegial Solovetsky monastery

Island Solovki became the birthplace of the monastery in the 30 years of the XV century came from Cyril of Belozersk and Valaam Monastery monks Savvatii, Germany and Zosima as the abode of "Saviour and Wonderworker Nicholas."During the XV-XVI centuries.monastery gradually grew, getting in his possession the major islands of the archipelago.

By the end of the XV century by the monks were built three wooden church of the Assumption, St. Nicholas and the Transfiguration, cells and numerous wooden outbuildings, enclosed by a wooden fence.

spiritual stronghold of the Russian North

In the middle of the XVI century monastery enters a period of major economic reforms associated with the name of Abbot Philip (Kolycheva), reformer, architect, energetic and talented economist.Here in 1550-1560-ies were carried out of the road, but the island was founded Muksalma B. "Milk Yard" with deer and cattle.To provide the population of the monastery running water 52 lakes connected Solovetsky Islands drinking channels.For defense in 1582-1594 years.It was erected a stone wall with towers and gates.Annunciation (Gate) church was built in 1596-1600 gg.

Throughout the XVII century Solovetsky monastery continues to emerge as an administrative, economic, spiritual, military, political and cultural center of the White Sea.In the XVIII-XX centuries.He was one of the places of exile and imprisonment of political criminals.

Soviet times

After the revolution of 1917 began to form a new Russia.Solovetsky Islands ceased to be the spiritual center and the monastery was abolished.In April 1920, the Arkhangelsk Provincial Commission initiated the nationalization of the property of the monastery.It was organized by the Office of Solovki islands and at the same time organized the farm "Solovki", which existed until 1923.The establishment of the farm did not mean the elimination of monasticism.About 200 monks were civilian employees, was organized by the religious community, whose activities are controlled by the Office of the Solovetsky Islands.

Gulag Archipelago

From 1923 to 1939 the island and all the buildings occupied by the former Solovetsky Monastery Solovetsky Special Purpose Camp NKVD (ELEPHANT).Organized by Kholmogorsky, Pertominskogo and Arkhangelsk, Solovki camp was one of the largest in Russia.The prison population in the Elephant at different times of change.Among them were representatives of the Russian aristocracy, the church, intellectuals, all of the pre-revolutionary political parties, criminals convicted of domestic affairs, representatives of national parties and many others.

Among exiled to ELEPHANT were registered scientists and artists, writers, poets, religious leaders Russia: professor, art historian AEAnisimov, a historian IDAntsiferov inventor BAArtemyev, Professor SAAskol'dov historian BBBakhtin, the artist IEBrazil, a descendant of the Decembrists ABBobrischev-Dushkin, poet MNCrow, ethnographer NNVinogradov, writer 0.B.Bolkiah, historian GOGordon, a poet AKGorsky, academician DSLikhachev, priest, scholar and lexicographer DAFlorensky and others.

Attractions Historical and Cultural Complex

Historical and Cultural Complex of the Solovetsky Islands - the only one of its kind, unique in the integrity and completeness of surviving it ensembles and complexes, places of worship, housing, defense, economic, hydraulic structures, networks of roads and irrigation systems of the Middle Agesas well as archaeological sites, monuments reflecting the ancient and medieval domonastyrskuyu island culture.They are concentrated in different parts of the larger islands of the archipelago, but geographically and historically interconnected, constitute a single, indivisible whole.Its different components represent all periods of the history of the archipelago and the whole of the Russian North.

constituent parts of the historical and cultural complex Solovetsky archipelago are:

  • monastery-fortress of XV-XX centuries., A former monastery village of XVI-XX centuries., Monasteries and deserts XVI-XX centuries .;
  • Fishing hut island waterworks and irrigation systems;
  • Complexes "sanctuary-park» III-I millennium BCB. Zayatsky Anzersky and islands;
  • Groups memorial buildings Solovki Special Purpose Camp 1923-1939 biennium.in the village and on the site of a brick factory;
  • Natural landscapes.

Center of Historical and Cultural Complex of the archipelago is the Solovetsky monastery - a unique holistic architectural ensemble.Its construction is a remarkable monumental, bright individual appearance of many structures and at the same time the integrity of all its parts.

Other attractions

archeological and architectural monuments, historic sites and amazing objects almost all the famous Solovetsky Islands.Sights worthy of special attention, are located on these islands:

  • Anzersky: Trinity monastery (XVII), Trinity Church (1880-1884), Golgotha-Crucifixion Skete (XIX).
  • Big Zayatsky: Zayatsky (St. Andrew's) monastery (XVI), boulder Harbor, Stone Harbor (XVI), the Church of St. Andrew.
  • Most Muksalma: Sergiev hermitage (XVI), boulder dam, connecting Muksalma with the Big Solovetsky Island (XIX).

Flora

labyrinths Solovetsky Islands are home to 500 species of plants.Among natural-territorial complexes island has habitats of endangered and rare species of plants.Their study, conservation and enhancement of the scientists involved.Arriving on the island, you must take care of the local flora, because torn unusual flower may be rare species.In need of special protection following flora: radiogram pink, daphne ordinary, Platanthera bifolia, Orchis spotted Dryopteris male, broad-orchids, Siberian pine, girchovnik north, lauzeleuriya recumbent, mustard and other arctic sea.

coastal waters of the White Sea - one of the richest and most productive Algoflora pool area (there are 160 species of benthic algae).

Fauna The fauna of the island due to the provisions of the Solovki archipelago and northern location does not differ a great variety of mammals.Two of their kind appeared here thanks man.This reindeer, brought to the island in the XVI century, and the muskrat, which appeared here in the 1920s.

more species-rich bird fauna of the islands.Birds on Solovki recorded nearly 200 species.Among them are "Red Book": white-tailed eagle, osprey, shelduck, a dead end.Exceptional interest is one of Europe's largest colonies of arctic tern and Russia's largest colony of gulls broody.The greatest diversity of species allocated Solovetsky Island.

Because marine mammals are common in coastal waters ringed seal, beluga whale, bearded and harp seals.On the coast of the island of Anzer maturation observed mass of pinnipeds and the western part of the Big Solovetsky Island fit herd of white whales of up to several hundred individuals.

Ecotourism

archipelago of great interest to people who love nature.Not only for the sake of visiting the famous monastery of tourists come to the Solovetsky Islands.Sights of nature are also worthy of attention.Amazing variety of landscapes allow in a compact area to wander through the forest, enjoy the beauty of green meadows and lakes, to observe the wildlife.

originality bays of the archipelago.Beautiful, with lots of small islands Long Bay is a unique body of water, which is inhabited by relict Arctic invertebrate forms, representing nearly closed ecosystem.Beautiful Trinity Bay, nearly half dissecans Anzersky island.

Nature Solovetsky Archipelago has an outstanding value, since it reflects the main periods of post-glacial geological history of the North, the history of human interaction, contains the stunning landscapes and is the habitat for rare species of birds and large bird colonies.People keen on mother nature, it is strongly recommended to visit the Solovetsky Islands.

How to get to Solovki winter

direction of the route depends on the vagaries of the weather and the seasons.In winter, the movement is very limited, to get an ordinary tourist on the island can only air from Arkhangelsk:

  • From the airport, "Talagi" on Tuesdays and Sundays flying aircraft airline "Air North" (AN-24).The flight time - 45 minutes.
  • From the airport "Vaskovo" operates flights every Friday the company "2nd AOAO" (L-410).

How to get to the island in the summer

With improved weather greatly increases the number of possible options to visit the Solovetsky Islands.How to get to the archipelago in spring and autumn a closer look.In addition to flights from Arkhangelsk at this time to open and routes of Karelia.

from the region to get to Arkhangelsk recommended by plane or train.For local road vehicles will be a real challenge.As in winter, you can get to Solovki by air.Flights from the airport "Talagi» (NordAvia) carried out on Tuesdays, Saturdays and Sundays.From "Vaskovo" (2nd AOAO) - Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays.

most romantic way - is to get boats on the Solovetsky Islands in the Karelian town of Belomorsk and Kem.In areas of Moscow and St. Petersburg in the city can be reached by train Murmansk.From the pier Rabocheostrovsk (Kem) daily ships sail to Solovki "Snowstorm" and "Vasily Kosjakov."Byelomorsk walks ship "Sapphire".The islands also ply "river taxis" - small boats that bring pilgrims and individual tourists.Planes and boats take passengers on the main island - Solovetsky.