Izborsk fortress.

of stones Izborsk fortress recognizes outstanding memorial ensemble of defensive architecture of Russia.The walls of the buildings stood when he was a lot of enemy sieges, never resigned invaders - Livonian Knights.

Extant huge fortress of ancient Russia, like the one that is in Izborsk, amazing spectators with its power.The ancient fortress walls is read a great determination to defend their lands.Making the bow to the unique Russian character.Instill respect for the will and indomitable spirit of the Stoic Rus.

Izborsk: history and attractions

oldest Russian settlement - the city of Izborsk - at the present time is considered to be a large village, which borders on the west with Pskov.In its vicinity are the famous Slovenian keys and Gorodischenskoe lake.

This place is in the eighth-tenth century was inhabited by the Slavic tribe - krivichi.Tradition says that the town was originally named Slovenian (named after the founder).The current name of the settlement appeared much later.The first me

ntion of him found in the chronicles.

Then these lands owned Truvor Varangian princes who came the younger brother of the legendary Rurik.On the territory of ancient Izborsk preserved Truvor settlement.The ancient village is situated on a small plateau of the pointed, steeply over Gorodishchenskaya lake.

on the water system associated with the city in ancient times was paved trade route that requires protection.For the preservation of its citizens built on the shores of the river Obdeh outposts.In the X century Izborsk begins to take positions.The status of the shopping center is gradually moving to Pskov.

However, military significance is still huge.Its historical past is closely intertwined with the Novgorod and Pskov land.In the XIV century twine powerful fortifications city.The fortress never fell under the onslaught of the Livonian knights.

To date, the ancient town was transformed into a village, where the preserved sights of Pskov, photo and description of which contain multiple sources.The tourists is of interest not too affected fortress, they go to the Slovenian keys and Truvor settlement.

Construction Izborsk fortress

is natural that at Zheravi Mount established a new city.The siege of the fortress Izborsk period not fit all the people.The attacks of the Livonian Knights continued.Activities of the Livonian Order foreshadowed a new battle, a victory that means one thing - the independence of Russian lands.The problem of the construction of powerful fortifications was acute.

Pskov izboryane native stone and fortified the town.The fortress, built of limestone slabs, formed in the Paleozoic era, is an impressive sight.After all, local limestone dark gray shades are not porous and friable, and dolomitic and overly dense.

new defense line as Truvor outpost fort, was built for reasons of location - on a high flat plateau.In the north, the south and the east side of the ancient fortress impregnable proved because of the natural steep cliffs, formed by dolomitic plates, and a huge ravine.With tall cape, crashing into the coast of tar and overhanging Izborsk valley, scenic panoramic views.

Before construction of fortifications on the plateau marked out their plan.The city walls grew up on the edge of a mountain plateau above the cliff.The natural base of the powerful rock helped to build incredibly high wall.Domed strengthening exactly repeated local relief fend area maximum.Besieged fortress, which affects the beauty of the photos, housed not only pasad people, but the population of the surrounding villages.

Convert strengthening

in the middle of XIV century was a strengthening of imposing outpost.The triangular plateau around the perimeter protected the gigantic stone walls.In the XV century building is undergoing significant renovation.Restructuring due to firearms, did not exist before that time, a change of tactics sieges and defense.

First of all, transformed the tower, which put innovation of military equipment.Then, further strengthened the northern side.However, these alterations have not made significant changes to the original appearance of the building.

inviolable fortress looks like a colossus.Photos presented it in our article.From the place where lies the Truvor settlement, outpost grew out like a gigantic rock, becoming an integral part of its continuation.

Chronicle reflects huge importance of this defensive structure.They described a bright episode.The clergy made procession along the "wall space."Next to the towers and gates are celebrating prayers.So clergymen consecrated city, fortress, saving a piece of land from the enemies of Russian.

Description

majestic fortress Izborsk fortress built on top of the mountain Zheravi, outline resembles a triangle, whose angles are rounded.It makes it unassailable two steep cliff and a specially dug ditches.The massive limestone wall long 623 meters high, fluctuating in the range of 7-10 m, and a thickness of 4 m.

It fortifications originally was a perfection that does not require adjustment.It is only to make minor adjustments, allows the introduction of technical and military innovations appearing in a particular century.The fortress, now a member of the sights of Pskov, photo and description of which are readily available, to develop and transform the growth of the ancient town.

The fortifications in the fortress fall overcoming Nicholas Dhahab - narrowed length of the corridor, which is equipped with a south wall.The first thing that appears to visitors - Church of St. Nicholas, topped with a silver dome.In ancient times, the locals called the settlement "Castle of St. Nicholas' Cathedral and anoint" his house. "Thus giving special importance Nicholas Church.

Besides it has a lot of other important facilities Izborsk fortress.Map clearly indicates the location of each of them.

Tower Lukovka

Kukovka (and a name have onions) - the mysterious tower.It is the only tower structures, embedded into a thick fortress wall.The tower is preserved from the time when the Izborsk fortress is a wooden outpost.

Much later it becomes literally "fortress in the fortress."Its role is the last refuge when the enemy possess basic defensive works.Below onion created arched doorway, speaking once as arsenal - gunpowder warehouse.

In addition, she was assigned to the function Sentinel.Top Kukovki equipped with an observation deck with panoramic paintings immediate vicinity.Onion, having undergone numerous reconstruction, it has lost the original internal shape created in antiquity.But the panorama remained virtually unchanged.

Talavskaya Tower

Talavskaya tower - rectangular building, is adjacent to the eponymous Dhahabi, who was wearing in the old creepy called "corridor of death".Entry and exit passage closed the gates.The enemy, breaking the outer gate, found himself in a narrow trap in which it has overtaken the inevitable defeat.

Tower Brandy and Brandy Temnushka

- hexagonal fortification fearsome.Temnushka silhouette similar to brandy.Both towers took the main enemy blows dealt from the west.And it is here, as it seemed to the enemy, with the most accessible side, it is necessary to attack the gigantic fortress.

bell tower

traditional fortifications related to gunshot early age, presented the bell tower.The building was equipped with an alarm bell, announces the arrival of "intruders" - the enemy troops.Spoloshny hum emitted by the bell reaches the Pskov.

Tower

And of course, Izborsk fortress equipped with tall tower.Tower - overview Post.Its top once crowned smotrilnya collected from wood and consists of two tiers.Almost tightly from the tower of stones laid out cross - mastermind outpost warriors and intimidate the enemy.

Dhahabi

narrow corridors, passageways - Nicholas and Talavsky - were excellent barriers to the penetration of enemy forces through the outer gate to the fortress courtyard.In addition, they played the role of a dangerous trap.Locking the enemy in a tiny space, from which there was no move, they have led to inevitable death invaders.

temple buildings

Kyoto Korsun chapel inscribed on the Old Slavonic language, the name of the creator of the construction - the architect-artist A.I.Vladovkago.And on the site of the burnt wooden Sergius of Radonezh Cathedral rebuilt temple complex Sergius and Nikandra.It just so happened that a new ensemble appeared rendered outside the fortress.

Attractions Truvor settlement

ancient settlement named after Prince Truvor, ruling Izborsky lands.The first defensive structure, is surrounded by ravines, has ceased to meet the requirements of war, was moved to the neighborhood rock - Zheravi mountain.At the site of the ancient outpost preserved ancient cemetery.

Truvor cemetery

At the end of the dark ancient necropolis stands a huge cross, built of stone.On its surface inscribed letters that virtually erased under the influence of time.Amazing Izborsk fortress history it has acquired unfounded myths.In particular, the cross is composed of two legends, who have the right to exist.

One claims that cross - attribute ancient outpost, the first settlement, which started the defense of Russia.According to another legend, the cross installed on the grave of Prince Truvor, whose body has been omitted for burial at a depth greater than two meters.

short, a gigantic stone pedestal - the keeper of the secrets of the fortress, whose roots were put into antiquity.Near the monument lie the old stove, covered with weird geometric designs.There is an assumption that by "Babylon" hidden military burial.

Temple Truvor settlement

Beside the cemetery is located a hill, the summit of which is crowned with the Church of St. Nicholas.The sight of her white stone walls, dotted with black crosses, frightening, especially in dense dusk.Originally this place was a wooden church, which was later replaced by a stone church.A few steps from the sanctuary hoisted a huge stone - a symbol of the truce with the Estonians.

River

life in the lowlands of the hill, in a place where the border Truvor settlement merges with the foot of the mountain Zheravi of the cliff, formed dense limestone, has a lot of millennial Slovenian keys.They are merging with each other, formed a sonorous stream, called "River of Life".

Crystal water stream rushing swiftly to Gorodishchenskaya lake.Waters keys from time immemorial is credited with miraculous possibilities, possession holy healing power.The keys are formed by twelve jets that have names of months.